Friday, 31 October 2014

Cabanis's greenbul

Phyllastrephus cabanisi

(Photo from Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
Cabanis's greenbul (en); tuta-de-Cabanis (pt); bulbul de Cabanis (fr); bulbul de Cabanis (es); Cabanis-bülbül (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Pycnonotidae

Range:
This species is found from northern Angola, through northern Zambia and southern and eastern D.R. Congo, and into South Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania and northern Mozambique.

Size:
These birds are 16,5-19 cm long and weigh 22-42 g.

Habitat:
Cabanis's greenbuls are mostly found in moist tropical forest, also using moist scrublands and secondary forests. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 2.700 m.

Diet:
They feed on various arthropods, namely grasshoppers, beetles, mantids, caterpillars, ants and spiders.

Breeding:
These birds possibly breed all year round. The female lays 2-3 eggs, which are incubated for 11-12 days. The chicks fledge 17 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and is described as common and widespread. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Thursday, 30 October 2014

Creamy-crested spinetail

Cranioleuca albicapilla

Photo by Tomas Grim (Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
creamy-crested spinetail (en); arredio-de-barrete-branco (pt); synallaxe à calotte blanche (fr); curutié crestado (es); fahlkappen-baumschlüpfer (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Furnariidae

Range:
This species is endemic to Peru, being found along the eastern slopes of the Andes from Tarma to Cusco.

Size:
These birds are 16-17 cm long and weigh 18-24 g.

Habitat:
The creamy-crested spinetail is mostly found in high altitude woodlands and scrublands, ranging from semi-arid to semi-humid areas, particularly areas dominated by Podocarpus or Eugenia-Escallonia. They also use pastures and arable land. This species occurs at altitudes of 2.400-3.800 m.

Diet:
They forage in pairs, or sometimes join mixed-species foraging flocks, taking various arthropods from the mid-storey of the vegetation.

Breeding:
Creamy-crested spinetails are believed to be monogamous and possibly breed in January-May. The nest is a small globular structure made of moss, twigs and bark strips, usually suspended from the end of a branch. There is no further information on the reproduction of this species.

Conservation:IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a relatively large breeding range and is described as locally fairly common. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Wednesday, 29 October 2014

Red-crested bustard

Lophotis ruficrista

Photo by Francesco Veronesi (Flickr)

Common name:
red-crested bustard (en); sisão-de-poupa-vermelha (pt); outarde houppette (fr); sisón moñudo austral (es); rotschopftrappe (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Gruiformes
Family Otididae

Range:
This species is found from southern Angola and Zambia, through north-eastern Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, and into southern Mozambique and northern South Africa.

Size:
These birds are 50 cm long and weigh about 680 g.

Habitat:
The red-crested bustard is found in dry savannas and scrublands, favouring areas dominated by mopane Colospermum mopane, Acacia, cluster-leaf Terminalia, Zambezi teak Baikiaea plurijaga and miombo Brachystegia.

Diet:
They feed mainly on invertebrates, namely termites, beetles, grasshoppers, bugs, butterflies, ants, centipedes, solifugids and spiders, also taking seeds, berries and leaves of various plants.

Breeding:
Red-crested bustards breed in September-April. They are polygynous, with males performing elaborate displays to attract multiple females and having no further part in the breeding process after mating. Each female lays 1-2 eggs, either directly on the ground or in a shallow scrape in the soil, often among dense leaf litter. She incubates the eggs alone for 20-23 days. The chicks leave the nest soon after hatching, but rely on the mother for food during the first few days. Afterwards they begin feeding themselves, but continue to rely on the mother for protection, and fledge 5-6 weeks after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and is reported to be common in much of this range. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Tuesday, 28 October 2014

White-throated woodcreeper

Xiphocolaptes albicollis

Photo by Sidnei Recco (Panoramio)

Common name:
white-throated woodcreeper (en); arapaçu-de-garganta-branca (pt); grimpar à gorge blanche (fr); trepatroncos gorgiblanco (es); weißkehl-baumsteiger (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Dendrocolaptidae

Range:
This species is found in southern Brazil, from Bahia and Goiás south to Rio Grande do Sul, and into eastern Paraguay and extreme north-eastern Argentina.

Size:
These large woodcreepers are 27,5-33 cm long and weigh 110-130 g.

Habitat:
The white-throated woodcreeper is mostly found in moist tropical forests, including Atlantic forest and gallery forest amid cerrado and chaco habitats. They also use areas of second growth to a lesser extent. This species occurs from sea level up to an altitude of 2.000 m.

Diet:They feed mainly on large arthropods, but also take snails, bird eggs, and occasionally small vertebrates.

Breeding:
White-throated woodcreepers breed in October-March. They nest in natural tree cavities, or sometimes in nest boxes, which are lined with bark flakes, leaf fragments and seed pods. The female lays 2-4 eggs, which are incubated by both parents for 17 days. The chicks are fed by both parents and fledge 18-22 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range, but is described as uncommon. The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, but it is not considered threatened at present.

Monday, 27 October 2014

Pygmy lorikeet

Charmosyna wilhelminae

(Photo from Loromania)

Common name:
pygmy lorikeet (en); lóri-pigmeu (pt); lori de Wilhelmina (fr); lori pigmeo (es); elfenlori (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Psittaciformes
Family Psittacidae

Range:
This species is endemic to New Guinea, being found along the central mountain range from Vogelkop to the Owen Stanley range.

Size:
These birds are 12,5-13 cm long and weigh about 20 g.

Habitat:
The pygmy lorikeet is found in mountain rainforests and moist savannas, at altitudes of 1.000-2.200 m.

Diet:
They feed on polen and nectar, namely of Eucalyptus, Castanopsis oaks, and Elaeocarpus.

Breeding:
Little is known about their reproduction. The clutch size is 2 eggs and incubation lasts for about 23 days.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range, but is reported to be generally uncommon. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Sunday, 26 October 2014

Common jery

Neomixis tenella

Photo by Nick Athanas (Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
common jery (en); jéri-comum (pt); petite éroesse (fr); jiji común (es); graunackentimalie (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Timaliidae

Range:
This species is endemic to Madagascar, being found throughout the island.

Size:
These birds are 10 cm long and weigh 6-8 g.

Habitat:
The common jery is mostly found in both dry and moist tropical forests, also using mangroves, dry scrublands, second growths, plantations and rural gardens.

Diet:
They forage by gleaning small arthropods from the foliage in the tree canopy, taking spiders, beetles, bugs, roaches, ants, butterflies, caterpillars and flies.

Breeding:
Common jerries breed in September-April. Nothing else is known about their reproduction.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and is described as common. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any current declines or substantial threats.

Saturday, 25 October 2014

Fiery-throated fruiteater

Pipreola chlorolepidota

Photo by Dusan Brinkhuizen (Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
fiery-throated fruiteater (en); anambé-de-garganta-vermelha (pt); cotinga à gorge rouge (fr); frutero gorjirrojo (es); orangekehlkotinga (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Cotingidae

Range:
This species is found in the eastern foothills of the Andes from southern Colombia to central Peru.

Size:
These birds are 12-13 cm long and weigh about 30 g.

Habitat:
The fiery-throated fruiteater is found in moist tropical forests, at altitudes of 600-1.200 m.

Diet:
They feed on various fruits, often joining mixed-species foraging flocks.

Breeding:
Fiery-throated fruiteaters breed in April-June. The nest is built mainly by the female and consists of a shallow bowl made of mosses and liverworts, and lined with briophyte roots and rootlets. It is placed in an horizontal fork in a tree, about 8 m above the ground. There the female lays 2 creamy white eggs with dark brown spots which she incubates alone for 17-22 days. The chicks are fed by both parents and fledge 20 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - NT (Near-Threatened)
This species has a relatively large breeding range, but is described as rare to uncommon and patchily distributed. The fiery-throated fruiteater is suspected to lose 26% of suitable habitat within its distribution over the next decade, based on a model of Amazonian deforestation , being therefore suspected to suffer a moderate decline in the near future. The main threat to this species is habitat loss, through conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture, mining operations, oil exploration and logging, and widespread destruction being caused by peasant farmers and tea and coffee growers.