Thursday, 24 April 2014

Red warbler

Ergaticus ruber

(Photo from NaturaLista)

Common name:
red warbler (en); mariquita-vermelha (pt); paruline rouge (fr); reinita roja (es); purpur-waldsänger (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Parulidae

Range:
This species is endemic to Mexico, being found form southern Chihuahua to southern Hidalgo.

Size:
These birds are 12,5-13,5 cm long and weigh 7,5-9 g.

Habitat:
The red warbler is found in humid and semi-humid pine, pine-oak, fir and to a lesser extent oak forests, located at high-altitudes. They are present at altitudes of 2.000-3.500 m.

Diet:
They are insectivorous, gleaning various insects from the foliage.

Breeding:
Red warblers breed in February-May. The female builds the nest alone, consisting of an oven-shaped structure made of pine needles, grass, lichens, moss and dead leaves. She lays 3-4 pale pink eggs with brown spots, which she incubates alone for 16 days. The chicks are fed by both parents and fledge 10-11 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and a global population estimated at 50.000-500.000 individuals. The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Wednesday, 23 April 2014

American oystercatcher

Haematopus palliatus

Photo by Dick Daniels (Wikipedia)

Common name:
American oystercatcher (en); ostraceiro-americano (pt); huîtrier d'Amérique (fr); ostrero americano (es); braunmantel-austernfischer (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Charadriiformes
Family Haematopodidae

Range:
This species breeds along both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and South America, from New Jersey and Baja California south to central Chile and Argentina, including several islands in the Caribbean.

Size:
These birds are 40-44 cm long and have a wingspan of 76-90 cm. They weigh 400-700 g.

Habitat:
The American oystercatcher is found in various coastal habitats, including rocky and sandy beaches, mudflats, salt ponds, salt marsh islands, estuaries and river mouths.

Diet:
They feed on oysters, mussels, clams and limpets, as well as snails, crabs, sea urchins, starfish and worms.

Breeding:
American oystercatchers are monogamous and breed in February-July. They nest on a shallow depression on the ground, located just above the high water mark. The female lays 2-4 buff-grey eggs with dark-brown speckles, which are incubated by both parents for 24-29 days. The chicks leave the nest within 24 h of hatching. They start flying after 5 weeks, but continue to follow the parents for several month until they learn the basic feeding techniques and become fully independent.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and is described as common. The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends. In North America the populations has undergone a large increase of 20% per decade over the last 4 decades.

Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Red-crested finch

Coryphospingus cucullatus

Photo by Dario Sanches (Wikipedia)

Common name:
red-crested finch (en); tico-tico-rei (pt); araguira rougeâtre (fr); brasita de fuego(es); haubenkronfink (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Emberizidae

Range:
This South American species is found from northern Argentina north to central Brazil, Bolivia and Peru, also with isolated populations in northern Brazil and the Guyanas.

Size:
These birds are 13-14 cm long and weigh 14-22 g.

Habitat:
The red-crested finch is mostly found in dry tropical scrublands, also using tropical forests, second growths, pastures and arable land. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 1.600 m.

Diet:
They forage on the ground, taking seeds, fruits and invertebrates.

Breeding:
Red-crested finches breed in a shallow cup made of plant fibres and lined with animal hairs, placed in a fork 3-12 m above the ground. There the female lays 2-3 white to buff eggs with a few brown spots, which she incubates alone for 11-15 days. The chicks fledge 11-14 days after hatching, but are not yet able to fly. They continue to be fed by the male and only become independent 3-4 weeks later. Each pair can raise 2-3 clutches per year.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and is species is described as common. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In fact, they are known to adapt easily to degraded habitats.

Monday, 21 April 2014

Narina trogon

Apaloderma narina

Photo by Bo Jerkeman (iGoTerra)

Common name:
Narina trogon (en); republicano (pt); trogon Narina (fr); trogón de Narina (es); Narinatrogon (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Trogoniformes
Family Trogonidae

Range:
This species is found in sub-Saharan Africa, from southern Guinea east to southern Sudan and Ethiopia, south to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and through southern Mozambique into south-eastern South Africa.

Size:
These birds are 29-34 cm long and weigh 50-95 g.

Habitat:
The Narina trogon is mostly found in tropical rainforests, gallery forests and dry savannas, but also use scrublands, second growths, alien Eucalyptus plantations and rural gardens. They are present at altitudes of 50-3.500 m.

Diet:
They mainly hunt invertebrates, such as caterpillars and adult moths, mantids, cicadas, tree grasshoppers, beetles, termite alates and spiders. Rarely, they also take chameleons and skinks.

Breeding:
Narina trogons are monogamous and can breed all year round. They nest in an unlined natural tree cavity, where the female lays 2-4 eggs. The eggs are incubated by both parents for 16-21 days. The chicks are mainly fed by the male and fledge 25-28 days after hatching, but will remain with their parents for several months even after being able to forage on their own.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has an extremely large breeding range and is reported to be locally uncommon but widespread. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Sunday, 20 April 2014

Bright-rumped attila

Attila spadiceus

Photo by Greg Lavaty (Osa Recording Project)

Common name:
bright-rumped attila (en); capitão-de-saíra-amarelo (pt); atila polimorfo (es); gelbbürzel-attilatyrann (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Tyrannidae

Range:
This species is found from western and southern Mexico south to Bolivia and north-western Brazil. There is also a disjunct population in coastal south-eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro.

Size:
These birds are 18-19 cm long and weigh 40 g.

Habitat:
The bright-rumped attila is mostly found in moist tropical forests, but also in dry tropical forests, savannas, second growths, banana and cacao plantations and rural gardens. They tend to favour forests edges and gallery forests and occur from sea level up to an altitude of 2.100 m.

Diet:
They hunt insects and spiders, also taking frogs, lizards, berries and seeds.

Breeding:
These birds breed in March-July. The nest is a bulky cup made of fibrous rootlets, rachises of compound leaves, and pieces of green fern frond or moss. It is lined with finer materials and placed among epiphytes, between buttresses or on a river or road bank, usually 0,8-3 m above the ground. The female lays 3-4 whitish, pinkish or yellowish eggs with brown to lilac spots and speckles, which she incubates alone for 14-15 days. the chicks fledge 17 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and a global population estimated at 0,5-5 million individuals. The bright-rumped attila is suspected to loose 12,5-13,5% of suitable habitat within its range over the next decade, based on a model of Amazonian deforestation. Therefore, it is suspected to undergo a small decline in the near future.

Saturday, 19 April 2014

Galapagos rail

Laterallus spilonotus

Photo by George Armistead (Neotropical Birds)

Common name:
Galapagos rail (en);  franga-d'água-das-Galápagos (pt); râle des Galapagos (fr); polluela de Galápagos (es); galapagosralle (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae

Range:
This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands, where it occurs on the islands of Pinta, Fernandina, Isabela, Santiago, Santa Cruz, Floreana, and San Cristóbal.

Size:
These birds are 15-16 cm long and weigh 35-45 g.

Habitat:
The Galapagos rail is mostly found in high-altitude grasslands and scrublands, especially ferns and sedges, as well as moist forests and freshwater lakes and marshes. They also use mangroves and arable land. This species is present from sea level up to an altitude of 1.700 m.

Diet:
They are mainly insectivorous, taking ants, dragonflies, moths, bugs, isopods, spiders, amphipods and snails. They are also known to eat the seeds of Miconia robinsonia and a few other plants.

Breeding:
Galapagos rails are monogamous and breed in September-April. They nest on the ground, in a cup made of plant stems with a side entrance. The female lays 3-6 beige eggs with reddish-brown and grey speckles, which are incubated by both parents for 23-25 days. The chicks leave the nest soon after hatching and reach adult size 80-85 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - VU (Vulnerable)
This species has a relatively small and disjunct breeding range. The global population is estimated at 3.300-6.700 individuals. The population is estimated to be declining at rate of 9% per year, possibly due to predation by introduced mammals such as rats, cats, dogs and pigs, and natural predators like the short-eared owl Asio flammeus and the barn owl Tyto alba. Another threat is habitat destruction as a result of grazing by introduced herbivores such as goats, cattle and horses. The small size of several of the populations If makes them vulnerable to extinction through natural disturbances, inbreeding and population changes of predators and herbivores. The invasion of the highlands of Santa Cruz by exotic Cinchona may lead to a reduction in the fern and sedge vegetation types it favours.

Friday, 18 April 2014

Tawny-winged woodcreeper

Dendrocincla anabatina

Photo by Marc Fasol (Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
tawny-winged woodcreeper (en); arapaçu-d'asa-ruiva (pt); grimpar à ailes rousses (fr); trepatroncos sepia (es); lohschwingen-baumsteiger (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Dendrocolaptidae

Range:
This species is found in Central America, from southern Mexico down to Costa Rica and marginally into Panama.

Size:
These birds are 17-19 cm long and weigh about 40 g.

Habitat:
The tawny-winged woodcreeper is mostly found in evergreen and semi-deciduous moist tropical forests, also using second growth, dense scrublands and mangroves. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 1.250 m.

Diet:
They feed mainly on insects, but also take small lizards and some plant material. They often
follow groups of squirrel monkeys and army ant swarms to capture fleeing insects.


Breeding:
Tawny-winged woodcreepers nest in tree cavities or hollow trunks, 1,5-6 m above the ground, which they line with plant fibres and lichens. There the female lays 2 eggs which she incubates alone for 20-21 days. The chicks are raised by the mother and fledge 23-25 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and a global population estimated at 50.000-500.000 individuals. This population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.